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HAND

Hand Anatomy

The wrist is a bio-mechanically complex joint allowing the wrist to move in extension (up), flexion (down), radial deviation (towards the thumb), ulnar deviation (towards the small finger) and minimal degrees of rotation. view 

Hand Contusion

Trauma is the term used to describe injury. Trauma is classified by its severity depending on the amount of force used to cause the injury. view 

Hand Fractures

A fracture is a break in the bone. Fractures in the hand are some of the most frequent in the upper extremity. view 

Hand Dislocations

Dislocations of the hand are injuries frequently associated with high energy trauma like a fall from a height, a motor vehicle collision or a sporting event. view 

Hand Open Wounds

Open wounds at the hand imply the disruption of the skin with exposure of deeper structures. view 

Hand Tendon Injuries

Tendons are the continuation of muscles which transmit the force of muscles to the bone it attaches to around a joint to generate motion. view

Nerve and Vessel Injury

Nerves are cables that transmit impulses from the brain and spinal cord that give specific orders to the various body parts. view

Hand Compartment Syndrome

Compartment syndrome in all extremities is an orthopedic emergency. The hand muscles are covered and divided by groups into compartments by a well defined, unyielding envelope called the deep fascia. view

Hand Amputations

An amputation is the severing of a body part. Amputations are classified as partial and complete and if the amputation was a clean cut, a crushing amputation or an avulsion amputation where the amputated limb is pulled right off of the body. view

Hand Arthritis

Joint arthritis occurs when the protective cartilage layer wears away. The joint then becomes more painful and loses motion. view

Hand Infections

Infections to the hand are common occurrences because our need to use our hands for all activities. view

Hand Mass/Tumors

The most frequent swelling or masses found at the hand and wrist level are ganglion cysts. view

HAND FRACTURES

Pathology


A fracture is a break in the bone. Fractures in the hand are some of the most frequent in the upper extremity. Males between 10 and 40 years of age are most commonly affected. Historically, some fractures are named after the doctor who first described the fracture or the condition that caused it. An example of this is the Bennett’s fracture that represents a fracture at the base of the thumb that extends into the carpometacarpal joint, or the Boxer’s fracture that involves the neck of the fifth metacarpal when punching improperly with the fist on a hard surface. The thumb and small fingers are the most frequently injured digits and are referred to as the border digits which puts them at higher risk of injury because of their proximity to objects when using the hands.

All fractures can be broadly described as closed fractures in which the skin is intact, or Open fractures which involve wounds that communicate with the fracture site, creating contamination and a potential risk for injection. Open fractures therefore require immediate surgical attention. Fractures are also classified according to their radiologic appearance by the geometry and direction, number of fracture fragments, angulation of the fracture fragments, displacement, or compression of the fragments. Fractures are further classified as intra-articular (break through the joint) or extra-articular (outside of the joint). These factors will determine if a fracture is stable or unstable and whether a cast vs surgery is required for definitive treatment.

Fractures that are not separated (displaced), significantly shortened or angulated can often be treated with a splint or cast that takes into consideration the correct alignment of the fracture but also the proper positioning of the other joints not involved in the break in order to avoid stiffness. The fracture usually gains strength around 4-6 weeks after injury and gentle active range of motion exercises can be started at that time or earlier, if the x-rays demonstrate sufficient fracture healing has occurred. The consultation of a therapist will assist in preventing the hand from becoming stiff and will guide the therapy protocol until the best level of activity is achieved.

Fractures of the hand can be complicated by deformity from no treatment, stiffness from prolonged immobilization, and both deformity and stiffness from improper treatment.

Treatment


When the fracture fragments are separated, open, significantly shortened, angulated, or contain multiple small fragments (comminution), the fracture is often unstable meaning it will not hold a reduction after splinting. In this instance surgery is required for proper healing in the optimal position to occur and full function to return. Different methods of fixation and stabilization have been described that can be used independently or in combination and include: Pins, Wires, Headless screws, External fixation and Plates and Screws. More recently, these fractures are also fixed with the use of modern plates and screws that incorporate new technology that lock the screws to the plate and hold the fragments together until the bone heals. These newer designs increase the rigidity of the fixation allowing earlier motion and may have an advantage in treating fractures when the quality of the bone is poor, severely compacted or severely fragmented risking potential collapse. The selection of the type of fixation depends on the fracture type, the availability of these systems to the surgeon, bone quality, patient co-morbid conditions and the surgeons training and expertise in the use of these systems. Severe fractures may have associated conditions like tendon, nerve or vessel injuries. A wide combination of associated fractures or dislocations can be observed, specifically in high energy injuries which demand a comprehensive evaluation and treatment.

After fracture fixation, the patient can start immediately with active motion of the fingers to prevent stiffness while in a removable splint. The patients are regularly evaluated at about 1 week postoperatively for the initial follow up. They are started as early as 48 hrs in a formal therapy program and are placed in a protective brace that allows for intermittent removal of the brace for hygiene and hand exercises. It may take up to 2-3 months to recover optimal motion and strength.