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HAND

Hand Anatomy

The wrist is a bio-mechanically complex joint allowing the wrist to move in extension (up), flexion (down), radial deviation (towards the thumb), ulnar deviation (towards the small finger) and minimal degrees of rotation. view 

Hand Contusion

Trauma is the term used to describe injury. Trauma is classified by its severity depending on the amount of force used to cause the injury. view 

Hand Fractures

A fracture is a break in the bone. Fractures in the hand are some of the most frequent in the upper extremity. view 

Hand Dislocations

Dislocations of the hand are injuries frequently associated with high energy trauma like a fall from a height, a motor vehicle collision or a sporting event. view 

Hand Open Wounds

Open wounds at the hand imply the disruption of the skin with exposure of deeper structures. view 

Hand Tendon Injuries

Tendons are the continuation of muscles which transmit the force of muscles to the bone it attaches to around a joint to generate motion. view

Nerve and Vessel Injury

Nerves are cables that transmit impulses from the brain and spinal cord that give specific orders to the various body parts. view

Hand Compartment Syndrome

Compartment syndrome in all extremities is an orthopedic emergency. The hand muscles are covered and divided by groups into compartments by a well defined, unyielding envelope called the deep fascia. view

Hand Amputations

An amputation is the severing of a body part. Amputations are classified as partial and complete and if the amputation was a clean cut, a crushing amputation or an avulsion amputation where the amputated limb is pulled right off of the body. view

Hand Arthritis

Joint arthritis occurs when the protective cartilage layer wears away. The joint then becomes more painful and loses motion. view

Hand Infections

Infections to the hand are common occurrences because our need to use our hands for all activities. view

Hand Mass/Tumors

The most frequent swelling or masses found at the hand and wrist level are ganglion cysts. view

HAND TENDON INJURIES

Pathology

Tendons are the continuation of muscles which transmit the force of muscles to the bone it attaches to around a joint to generate motion. After a laceration that is more than 30 % the diameter of the tendon, there is significant loss of resistance to withstand tension. In addition, if left untreated, the lacerated part can catch with surrounding tissue and create an impediment to free gliding. More importantly, only a formal exploration can reliably confirm the number and severity of the structures injured. Tendons take approximately 6 weeks to reach 80 % of what will be their final strength and approximately 10 weeks to reach 95 % of their final strength. There are several techniques for tendon repairs using different patterns of suturing techniques, and different types and sizes of suture material used in combination to approximate the tendon core and periphery. The resultant strength of the repair and the type of post operative therapy will change according to the above variables.

Treatment

Tendons lacerations about the hand are repaired with sufficiently strong, non-bulky suture techniques that permit early mobilization. A meticulous technique is critical to allow proper tendon gliding to avoid adhesions (stuck tendons) from forming. This is particularly important for the hand at the finger level (zone II) where the flexor tendons run through a tight fibro-osseous tunnel that is at risk for restricted motion if a bulky repair is done, that places the repair at high risk for rupture. This area (zone II) in the digits was dubbed by hand surgeons “No Man’s Land”, due to the technical difficulty of repair imposed by the pulley system and the poor results that were historically obtained. The surgeons at ROC have specialized training to perform these techniques with optimal results obtained for many years. When there is a significantly large defect on the tendon that does not allow for primary repair, a tendon graft or tendon transfer is performed. A repaired or reconstructed tendon will require initial protection in a splint. The use of updated techniques and the creation of strong tendon repairs permit the early initiation of a safe and well structured hand therapy program. A hand therapy program for tendon repair will initially focus on techniques to control pain, decrease swelling/edema, initiate and increase protected tendon gliding, advance to differential gliding and provide tendon/muscle strengthening.