KNEE

Knee Anatomy

The bones of the knee are the femur (thigh bone), tibia (shin bone) and patella (kneecap). View Pages 

Knee Fracture

Knee fractures may involve the lower end of the thigh bone (femur), upper end of the shin bone (tibia), the kneecap (patella), or any combination of the three. View Pages 

Leg Fractures

The main bone in the leg (tibia) breaks into two or more pieces depending on how bad the injury. View Pages 

Knee Dislocation

Knee dislocations are true orthopedic emergencies. In addition to the knee joint being out of place, the nerves and blood vessels that supply the leg are at risk for injury and can threaten the viability. View Pages 

Leg Compartment Syndrome

Leg compartment syndrome occurs when the pressure within the front, back, or outer leg compartments rises above the blood pressure needed for the heart to pump blood to the thigh. View Pages 

Knee Ligament Injury

A knee ligament injury can be a sprain in which a ligament around the knee gets stretched or the ligament can be partially or completely torn. View Pages 

Knee Meniscus Tear

The menisci are two C-shaped cartilage disks that sit between the thigh bone (femur) and the shin bone (tibia) and provide stability, support, and cushioning for the knee. View Pages 

Patellofemoral Syndrome

Patellofemoral syndrome encompasses a spectrum of conditions that can involve the kneecap (patella), quadriceps muscle group, iliotibial band (ITB), hamstrings, as well as the thigh bone (femur) and shin bone (tibia). View Pages 

Knee Arthritis

Knee arthritis is the loss of the cartilage cushion in the joint contact surfaces that normally allows for smooth, pain-free gliding during knee range of motion.  View Pages 

Knee Tendon Disorders

The common tendon disorders about the knee include bursitis, tendonitis, quadriceps, and patellar tendon tears. View Pages 

Stiff Joints: Stiff Knee

Stiff knee, also referred to as arthrofibrosis, is a condition that is associated with moderate to severe pain with knee motion. View Pages 

Knee Infection

The knee is one of the most well-perfused (good blood supply) areas of the human body and because of this ample blood supply to the knee, circulating white blood cells offer excellent protection against infection. View Pages

KNEE ANATOMY

The bones of the knee are the femur (thigh bone), tibia (shin bone) and patella (kneecap). The femur and tibia meet to form the knee joint which is a hinge with the knee cap(patella) in front of these two bones acting as a mobile shield to protect the joint. The patella slides up and down in a groove in the femur called the femoral groove as the knee is bent and straightened.

Ligaments hold the knee together and give it stability. The medial (inner) collateral ligament (MCL) and outer (lateral) collateral ligament (LCL) limit sideways motion of the knee. The posterior and anterior cruciate ligaments (PCL and ACL) limit forward and backward translational motion of the knee bones, keeping them stable and allowing the knee to function as a unit.

Two structures known as menisci sit between the femur and the tibia and act as cushions or shock absorbers for the knee. Menisci are one of two types of cartilage in the knee. The other type, articular cartilage, is a smooth and very slick material that covers the end of the femur, the femoral groove, the top of the tibia and the underside of the patella. This articular cartilage allows the bones to move smoothly without pain. If this layer wears away, it is called arthritis and then the motion becomes painful.

Tendons connect muscles to the bones of the knee. The quadriceps muscles on the front of the thigh are connected to the top of the patella by the quadriceps tendon, which covers the patella and becomes the patellar tendon. The patellar tendon then attaches to the front of the tibia. The hamstring muscles in the back of the leg attach to the leg bone (tibia) at the back of the knee. The quadriceps muscles straighten the knee and the hamstring muscles bend the knee both of which are required for walking, running or simply standing.

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