The bones of the knee are the femur (thigh bone), tibia (shin bone) and patella (kneecap). view
Knee fractures may involve the lower end of the thigh bone (femur), upper end of the shin bone (tibia), the kneecap (patella), or any combination of the three. view
The main bone in the leg (tibia) breaks into two or more pieces depending on how bad the injury. view
Knee dislocations are true orthopedic emergencies. In addition to the knee joint being out of place, the nerves and blood vessels that supply the leg are at risk for injury and can threaten the viability. view
Leg compartment syndrome occurs when the pressure within the front, back, or outer leg compartments rises above the blood pressure needed for the heart to pump blood to the thigh. view
A knee ligament injury can be a sprain in which a ligament around the knee gets stretched or the ligament can be partially or completely torn. view
The menisci are two C-shaped cartilage disks that sit between the thigh bone (femur) and the shin bone (tibia) and provide stability, support, and cushioning for the knee. view
Patellofemoral syndrome encompasses a spectrum of conditions that can involve the kneecap (patella), quadriceps muscle group, iliotibial band (ITB), hamstrings, as well as the thigh bone (femur) and shin bone (tibia). view
Knee arthritis is the loss of the cartilage cushion in the joint contact surfaces that normally allows for smooth, pain-free gliding during knee range of motion. view
The common tendon disorders about the knee include bursitis, tendonitis, quadriceps, and patellar tendon tears. view
Stiff knee, also referred to as arthrofibrosis, is a condition that is associated with moderate to severe pain with knee motion. view
The knee is one of the most well-perfused (good blood supply) areas of the human body and because of this ample blood supply to the knee, circulating white blood cells offer excellent protection against infection. view
The knee is one of the most well-perfused (good blood supply) areas of the human body and because of this ample blood supply to the knee, circulating white blood cells offer excellent protection against infection. Consequently a knee infection is a rare condition. In spite of this, there are certain conditions that predispose individuals to having a knee infection:
The treatment of a knee infection depends on several factors which include:
When an infection is superficial, oral antibiotics, warm soaks and resting the extremity may be adequate treatment. If the infection has spread and lymph node involvement, fever, chills or other systemic symptoms accompany the infection, hospital admission for intravenous antibiotics/fluids and systemic support is preferred. If the infection is loculated, fluctuant, or an abscess has formed, it is a surgical condition requiring incision and drainage.
When a joint replacement has been done, it is prudent to admit the patient to the hospital to possibly wash out the wound. If the infection of the joint replacement occurs within 3 weeks of the initial surgery and the infection is deemed “acute”, surgery usually involves washing out the wound, replacing the plastic liner between the metal implants, and retaining the knee replacement components that were originally implanted. If the infection of the joint replacement has occurred more than 3 weeks after the initial surgery and the infection is deemed “chronic”, surgery often involves washing out the wound, removing all of the knee replacement components, and placing an antibiotic cement spacer. After the organism that caused the infection has been identified, the patient is given at least 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics to eradicate the infection. Once the infection has been completely cleared, a revision knee replacement surgery may be scheduled to remove the cement spacer and reimplant the knee replacement components. If the patient’s medical health or immune status is compromised, fully treating the infection and leaving the cement spacer in place or leaving the joint without an implant may be the best option.