The shoulder joint is the second largest and most mobile joint in the human body and can be easily understood if divided into three layers. view
Trauma is the term used to describe injury. Trauma is classified by its severity depending on the amount of force used to cause the injury. view
Shoulder Fractures or breaks in the shoulder can occur in the humeral bone, collar bone or the in shoulder blade. view
A shoulder dislocation is classified according to the direction of the dislocation (Anterior, posterior or multi-directional), the amount of force it took to dislocate the shoulder (Traumatic or Atraumatic), and whether it is accompanied by a fracture (fracture dislocation). view
Shoulder Arthritis is the loss of the cartilage cushion in the joint surfaces (blue section) that allows the smooth pain free gliding required during shoulder motion. view
Nerve compression syndromes are normally found in adults of all ages and it is rare to find nerve compression syndromes in patients younger than 20 years of age. view
Shoulder pain is the most common presenting shoulder complaint in an orthopedic practice. view
The shoulder is one of the most well perfused areas of the human body and because of this ample blood supply to the shoulder which carries circulating white blood cells, offers excellent protection against infection, consequently making a shoulder infection a rare occurrence. view
A Frozen shoulderalso called adhesive capsulitis is a condition presenting withshoulder stiffness and severe shoulder pain when shoulder motion is initiated. view
Tumors are divided into benign and malignant types. view
The shoulder is one of the most well perfused areas of the human body. Due to the ample blood supply circulating white blood cells, the shoulder has excellent protection against infection.
In spite of this, there are certain conditions predisposing individuals to a shoulder infection. Predisposing Conditions include:
A penetrating shoulder injury that is not cleaned and repaired properly or timely. All penetrating injuries should seek medical advice for:
A postoperative wound to the shoulder
Post joint replacement (arthroplasty)
Patient with a weak immune status. Examples of weak immune status can be due to:
Factors Influencing Treatment Options
Superficial infections can be treated with oral antibiotics, warm soaks and resting the extremity.
Spreading infections with lymph node involvement bring on fevers and chills and hospital admission for intravenous antibiotics, fluids and systemic support is preferred.
If the infection is well loculated and fluctuant (soft), it is an abscess. This is a surgical condition requiring incision and drainage.
When a joint replacement has been done, it is prudent to admit the patient to the hospital for IV antibiotics in the first few days after surgery and have a low threshold for washing out the wound.
If the infection of the joint replacement occurs weeks or months after the surgery, then cultures are taken prior to giving antibiotics and the implant is usually removed. The implant can later be re-implanted after the organism has been identified and IV antibiotics have been given for six weeks. If the patient with a joint replacement has poor health or a poor immune status, then leaving the joint without an implant may be the best option.